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Tïjonïk 12 Na kinwar taj! (I am not sleeping!)


In this unit we will study negation in K’iche’. We will use the particles na and ta(j) to create negative sencences.


Read the following senteces and questions, along with their negative versions.

1) Kimb’e pa le juyub’.
1a) Na kimb’e ta pa le juyub’. Na kimb’e taj.

2) Kaki’kot le tijoxel pa le tijob’al.
2a) Na kaki’kot ta le tijoxel pa le tijob’al. Na kaki’kot taj.

3) La kixch’aw pa le ch’aweb’al?
Na kojch’aw ta pa le ch’aweb’al. Na kojch’aw taj.

4) La katzijon la kuk’ le winaq?
Na kintzijon ta kuk’ le winaq. Na kintzijon taj.

5) La ko’pan pa le ko’ch le tijoxelab’?
Na ko’pan ta pa le ko’ch le tijoxelab’. Na ko’pan taj.



Negation of verbs

Verb negation

Negative clauses in K’iche’ require two negation particles: na preceding the predicate head -which can be a verb, adjective, noun or pronoun- and ta(j) following it. Na is often deleted in colloquial speech. There are two variants of the second particle: taj in phrase-final position and ta elsewhere.

To answer “no” in K’iche’, the whole verb phrase is repeated and negated.

La kixwarik?
La k-ix-warik?
INT INC-2pl-sleep-pfm
Are you all sleeping?

Na kujwar taj.
Na     k-uj-war         taj
Neg1 INC-1pl-sleep Neg2
We aren’t sleeping.

Na kujwar ta waral.
Na     k-uj-war         ta       waral
Neg1 INC-we-sleep Neg2 here
We don’t sleep here.

Na kawar ta la.
Na ka-0-war ta la
Neg1 INC-a-sleep Neg2 2sF
You aren’t sleeping. (Second Sing. Formal)

Here are a couple more – non-sleeping- examples:

La katb’in pa le uxlanb’al?
La k-at-b’in pa le uxlanb’al?
INT INC-2sing-walk LOC ART park
Are you walking to the park?

Na kimb’in taj.
Na k-im-b’in taj
Neg1 INC-1sing-walk Neg2
I am not walking.

La kixpe pa tijob’al?
La k-ix-pe pa tijob’al?
INT INC-2pl-come LOC school
Are y’all coming to school?

Na kojpe taj.
Na k-oj-pe taj
Neg1 INC-1pl-come Neg2
We are not coming.


K’AK’A TAQ TZIJVocabulary

These are some more common intransitive verb roots:

b’in(ik) to walk, to travel
b’e(k) to go
pe(t) to come
kape le jab’ it starts to rain
kos(ik) to be/become tired
qaj(ik) to descend, to go down
kinqaj chuwach le juyub’. I descend the mountain.
wa'(ik) to eat
ch’aw(ik) to talk
ka’y(ik) to see, to look
chakun(ik) to work
kam(ik) to die
war(ik) to sleep
b’ixan(ik) to sing
ki’kot(ik) to be happy
b’ison(ik) to be unhappy, sad
t’uyi'(k) to sit
tak’i(k) to stand