In this unit, we will study directionals, particles that denote from/to where actions take place. They appear after verbs to signal direction.
UCHUPLINEM JUN ALAJ CH’UMIL
Ronojel ch’aq’ab’ kinka’y aq’an chi la’ chikaj, kinwil apan jun laj ch’umil sib’alaj kachuplinik; utukelam, le uchuplinem kuya jun nimalaj utzil pa le wanima. K’o jun aq’ab’ xinel apan chwach le wo’ch, xinka’y apan chech le nutinamit, xe’nwil apan jun tzob’aj achijab’-ixoqib’ epetinaq, sib’alaj keb’isonik. Aretaq xeq’ax b’i wuk’, xkib’ij kan chwe cher xeb’e chi na chuch’ab’exik ri nimalaj q’atal tzil, are taq xinta wa’ sib’alaj xinb’isonik, ma we ne kech’ay chu’la jumul ja cha ri uk’isb’al mul.
Alaj ch’umil: we ne aweta’m at ri k’axk’olil kuriq we nutinamit, chaya la jub’eq’ ri uchuplinem ri utzil kariqitaj awuk’, na kawaj ta chik kinwil le’qatat-qanan kakiriq k’ax. Kinwachik’aj ri’ ri jun q’ij cher katkowinik katpe wuk’, arech apachin na k’u kaka’y kan pa le wo’ch: kuna’ b’i jub’eq’ utzil, ki’kotemal. Kawaj pa jun q’ij kinb’e awuk’, kate’nwila’; junam koje’xojowa pa ri k’olb’al ja wi xya wi ri achuplinem. Weta’am cher xa rumal sib’alaj naj ri at k’o wi, we ne na kintzalij ta chu’la pa le nutinamit, cherma we na kintzalij ta chu’loq: oj keb’ chi k’ut kaqaya la le uchuplinem ri utzil, ri ki’kotemal chikech ri achijab’, ri ixoqib’, ri eqata-qanan, ri qati’t qamam chuqe ne ri ak’alab’ ri kakitzukuj ri utzil; ma ja cha ri at, ja cha ri in, ja cha ri konojel taq winaq, k’is k’o ri uchuplinem ri utzil ri ki’kotemal pa taq ri uk’ux qanima.
K’iche’ has a set of post-verbal directional particles which add a sense of trajectory in/from which the event takes place with reference to the speaker or the deictic origo of the action. Deictic origo refers to the perspective from which the event is talked about:
Directionals in K’iche’:
|la/ (u)loq||from there to origo|
|b’i(k)||away from origo|
|kan(oq)||origo has moved away from scene; time reference: past|
|apan(oq)||refers to movement between speaker and a place nearby|
|aq’an(oq)||movement upward; time reference: future|
|qaj(oq)||movement down, vertical movement|
|koq/ka||towards inside; horizontal movement on eye-level|
They remained BACK THERE the workers
“The workers” are the subject in this phrase, however, the directional kan reveals that the action is talked about from a perspective removed from the place of the action.
The directionals can often be translated as (MAIN VERB ACTION) + “and then he goes away or out/come here/leave behind/goes up/goes down/goes in”
Some directionals change forms according to phonological environment; directionals have phrase-medial and phrase-final forms, and sometimes merge with other particles. Sometimes they give a specific meaning to a verb; for example:
k’am+ b’ik “take away (there)”
k’am + uloq “bring (here)”
This form is used when action occurs towards the speaker’s spatial location. When (u)loq is not utterance final, it takes the form la. Uloq loses its first vowel when the preceding word ends in a vowel or vowel-like sound.
The man looked in this direction (towards the speaker).
I returned (here) yesterday.
If you have money, bring it here.
Note that what distinguishes ‘take’ from ‘bring’ in K’iche’, is the directional accompanying the verb –k’am:+ b’ik “take away (there)” and k’am+uloq “bring here”
If you have any money, bring it tomorrow.
Yesterday we came back from the market.
(u)loq combines with other adverbs or pronouns, changing sometimes its phonological shape:
|With na: Later, afterwards (this adds a sense of “future”)|
|Na + (u)loq > nu’loq|
|Na + la > nu’la|
I will bring it here tomorrow
|With la You (formal)|
|la + loq > lu’loq|
|la + la > lu’la|
Will you (formal) return here quickly?
|With wi Trace|
|wi + loq > wu’loq|
|wi + la > wu’la|
From where did you bring the clothes here?
|With chi Again|
|chi + loq > chu’loq|
The man looked again in this direction.
|With na…taj Negators|
|Na…taj + loq > Na… tu’loq|
|Na…taj + la > Na…tu’la|
I have not brought that here.
This form is used with actions involving movement away from the speaker’s spatial location or deictic origo. When not in clause-final position, b’ik takes the form b’i.
The girl went out (away from here).
The men got drunk before going away from here.
Contrast Ex. 12 with Ex. 13 and 14:
The men got drunk.
The men went away and got drunk.
Take it away from here!
The girl went out away from the house (the speaker is in the house).
We were beaten away (from the house).
B’i(k) combines with other adverbs or pronouns, changing sometimes its phonological shape:
|With na Later, afterwards|
|Na + b’ik > Nu’b’ik|
|Na + b’i > Nu’b’i|
I will take it away tomorrow.
|With la You (formal)|
|la + b’ik > lu’b’ik|
|la + b’i > lu’b’i|
Will you (formal) take it away today?
|With wi Trace|
|wi + b’ik > wu’b’ik|
|wi + b’i > wu’b’i|
Was money stolen away from the house?
|With chi again|
|chi + b’ik > chu’b’ik|
|chi + b’i > chu’b’i|
The children were taken away again.
|With na…taj Negators|
|na…taj + b’ik > na…tu’b’ik|
|na…taj + b’i > na…tu’b’i|
We’re not taking it away today.
This form is used to indicate that the speaker/subject has moved away from the event location. Kanoq is found in phrase-final position and kan elsewhere.
The workers remained behind.
I left my bag in the market.
Our friend didn’t come, he remained behind sleeping.
We left it behind.
Our father said before he left that he would come again later.
This form is used with actions involving movement between the speaker and a point in space located nearby. Alternatively, it may indicate that the narrative’s deictic origo is not the sentence subject’s position, but the speaker’s.
I was kicked around because I did not like the movie Apocalypto.
Ixkik’ can write and speak to (people in) other countries.
Hopefully, we will see each other in four days when I get back home.
This directional denotes movement upward. It can also refer to days into the future.
31.Kimb’e aq’an ruk’ le al Talin. / Kimb’e aq’anoq.
I am going up there with Talin. / I am going up there.
32. Pa oxib’ q’ij aq’anoq, kimb’e ruk’ le nutat.
In three days, I will go with my father.
This directional implies movement downward.
33. Xinxuli’ qaj pa le ja. / Xinxuli’ qajoq.
I went down in/to the house (down stairs within the house, down from one house to another). I went down.
This directional indicates that the event is happening towards an “inside”.
I am just stepping inside my house (for a moment)
I am peeking into the house (the understanding is that the head is stuck through the doorway/window ; movement of head is vertical on eye level)
|sipaj (vtr)||to give (as a gift)|
|ka’y(ik) (vit)||to look|
|tzalij (vit)||to return|
|q’abar(ik) (vit)||to become drunk|
|wachib’al||movie, picture, painting, photograph|
Translate the following phrases into English
- Qak’ama b’i le tz’i’. Xa kaqasipaj che le qachalal.
- Janipa chi ix qajnaq la waral pa tinamit?
- Karaj le achi kutij uwa chanim; chak’ama loq.
- La kaj la kab’e la quk’ pa muqunik?
- Xkanaj kan le achi je la’ pa taq’aj. Na xuq’i’ ta chik xpe quk’.
- Na xekowin ta le winaq xkik’am la le kalk’w’al waral pa kunaxik.
- Kachokon le laq chwe; utz kiya kanoq.
- Kutij nu’b’i le uwa le wachajil, k’a te k’u ri’ kab’e pa chak.
- Janipa kakowin la katzalij chi lu’loq?
- Na kujwa’ ta chik. Xtijtaj la qech chuwa ja.
- Kinch’aw apanoq ruk’ le numial aretaq chintzalij chwa wo’ch.
Translate the following phrases to K’iche’:
- Do you (lal) want to take the dog away with you?
- I was not able to bring my friend here today.
- Leave (alaq) the dry ears of corn in the house.
- If the marimba is useful to the marimba players, we’ll bring it here tomorrow afterwards.
- Take care of yourself (lal) Diego. (You remaining behind)
- It is necessary that the money be returned here to the owner.
- I am stepping into my house (for a moment)