In this lesson, we will learn about the basic family relationships.
In this video, Nela and Ernesto talk to us about their families.
Read the following phrases. They are based on the information provided in the video and the family tree.
Xtu’p is Nelas grandfather.
Ernesto is Nela’s husband.
Wel is Nela’s dad.
Xe’p is Nela’s mom.
Jose Manuel is Nela’s son.
Xwan is Nela’s brother.
Xe’p is Nela’s younger sister.
Nela is Ernesto’s wife.
Jose Manuel is Ernesto’s son.
Chep is Ernesto’s dad.
We’l is Ernesto’s mother.
Wel is Ernesto’s older brother.
Talin is Ernesto’s sister.
|upa w-o’ch||my family|
|aj upa ja||family member|
|E-ixoqil||wife (always possessed)|
|E-achajil||husband (always possessed)|
|E-achalal||sibling: brother, sister|
|E-alaxik||family member; people that are “born with you”, someone related|
Terms for children
|E-alk’wal||child (of father) This describes children belonging to a family without specifying which gender. Always possessed. Absolutive form: alk’ualaxel(-ab’)|
|E-al||child (of mother) (always possessed, no plural form)|
|mi’al||daughter (of father); no plural|
|k’ajol||son (of father), plural :k’ajolab’|
|nab’e al||first (oldest) child in the family; said by father and mother|
|ch’i’p||last child (youngest) child in the family|
|ne’||baby (pl.: ne’ab’)|
Terms for siblings: The sibling uses one term for siblings of the opposite gender, but differentiates same-gendered siblings according to relative age to speaker
|-xb’al||brother (of sister), no plural|
|-anab’||sister (of brother), no plural|
|-atz||older sibling (sister to sister or brother to brother)|
|-chaq’||younger sibling (sister to sister or brother to brother)|
Terms for extended family:
|ch’utiq tat nan||aunts and uncles|
|ch’uti E-al||niece, nephew (of woman)|
|ch’uti E-k’ajol||nephew (of man)|
|ch’uti E-mi’al||niece (of man)|
|ch’uti E-anab’||female cousin of male|
|ch’uti E-xb’al||male cousin of female|
|ch’uti E-atz||older cousin of same gender as speaker|
|ch’uti E-chaq’||younger cousin of same gender as speaker|
Terms for affinal family (in-law relationship)
|ji’ achi||father-in-law (use formal address lal, spoken by man)|
|ji’ ixoq||mother-in-law (use formal address lal, spoken by man)|
|tat||father-in-law (use formal address lal, spoken by woman)|
|nan||mother-in-law (use formal address lal, spoken by woman)|
|alib’||daugther-in-law; sister in law (of woman)|
|alib’||daughter-in-law (of man)|
|ji’||son- in- law (of man)|
|ji’||son-in-law (of female)|
|b’aluk||brother-in-law (of man)|
|echam||brother-in-law (of woman)|
|ixnam||sister-in-law (of man)|
|achalka’n||the wife of your spouse’s brother (concuña)|
|achji’||the husband of your spouse’s sister (concuño)|
|uq’ab’ alaxik||wider family|
If you are in a class with other students, come up with 5 questions to ask a partner about their family. Otherwise, answer the following questions:
- La k’o awixoqil/awachajil? Jas ub’i?
- Jas ub’i le anan? Jas ub’i le atat?
- La k’o le axb’al/awanab’? Jas ub’i?
- Janipa le alaxik e k’o pa le awo’ch?
- La k’o le awati’t? La k’o le amam? Jas kib’i?