In this lesson, we will learn about several helping verbs.
Pa we nutinamit Nawalja’ sib’alaj nim ub’antajik le alkalte, ma are ri’ ri achi on ixoq cher rajawaxik kakowin chech rilik, ukajmaxik le qatinamit; pa taq we q’ij kamik ri’, e k’i le achijab’ kakaj ko’k alkalteyib’, sib’alaj k’i taq le tzob’aj le kekowinik kakinuk’maj kib’; kakicha jun achi on jun ixoq cher kajawaxik kok pa jun chayunem rech alkalte pa we qatinamit. Rajawaxik oj kaqakoj ri qachomanik:ma are e k’i le tzob’aj le kakaj xaq kakik’am b’i jun achi on jun ixoq pa le q’atb’al tzij chwach leetzob’aj le qas tzij kakaj kekito’ ri e qawinaq: rajawaxik jun k’extajem. Rumal k’ù la’ ri oj katajin kaqakoj qachomab’al arech no’jim kak’extaj le qatinamit, tajin kojchakun pa kiwi’ ri e qalk’wal, naj rajawaxik kojka’y wi apanoq, arech ri ak’alab’ kaketa’maj ri ub’e’el ucholaj chi’lam le urajawaxik lejalajoj taq komon pa we qatinamit, na’taja chiqech cher e k’i la’ kakaj ko’k pa le q’atb’al tzij . Cher ma rajawaxik kaqil na che ri jun achi on jun ixoq, kakowinik koj ril pa junamam aretaq chopan pa le q’atb’al tzij, ma qonojel ya’tal chiqech kojk’oji’ pa utzil, pa ki’kotemal.
In Nahualá, my town, the alcalde is very important because he’s the man or woman that must be able to watch over and serve our town. Nowadays, there are many men who want to become alcalde. There are many political groups that get organized. They choose a man or woman that is respected to enter the elections for alcalde in our town. It is necessary that we (put to) use our reasoning; there are more groups that only want to get a man or woman into the government than those that want to help our people. A change is necessary. That’s why we are using our knowledge to slowly change our town. We are working for our children. It is necessary that we look far ahead so that our children can learn about reality and the needs of different communities in our town. Let’s remember that there are many that want to be in the government, but we must see whether this man or woman can look after us equally when they get elected, because we all have the right to be well, to be in happines.
The following shows the common use of some auxiliary verb-construction. (In English auxiliary verbs are usually followed by the infinitive, like in I want to cry). In K’iche’ a second full verb is often used.
Kowinik “to be able to”: The main verb follows a form of “kowinik” with which it agrees in person and aspect.
INC-1sing-be able to-pfm INC-1sing-go-pfm.
I can go.
COMP-2sing-be able to-pfm COMP-2sing-do-pfm.
You were able to do it. / You could do it.
k-in-kowinik k-in-k’am b’i le pwaq we ka-r-aj ri nu-tat
INC-1sing-be able to INC-1sing-bring directional art. money if INC-3sing-want my-dad
I can bring the money if my dad wants
La ka-Ø-kowin alaq k-in-Ø-to’ alaq?
INT INC-Ø-be able to 2pl INC-1sing-Ø-help?
Can you all (formal) help me?
Aj “want” (vtr): In a construction with the verb aj “want” the following main verb does not have to agree in person with –aj-.
I want (it)
We want (it)
You want (it)
You (pl) want (it)
He/she wants (it)
They want (it)
You (formal) want (it)
You (formal, pl) want (it)
Ka-w-aj k-im-b’e pa tinamit.
INC-1sin-want INC-1sing-go LOC town
I want to go to town
You wanted to do it.
La k-Ø-aj la k-uj-tzalij la aninaq?
INT INC-Ø-want 2sing,formal INC-return la fast
Do you (formal) want us to return quickly?
Do you (formal) want us to go dance tomorrow?
Rajawaxik “it is necessary”, “to need”: The irregular passive stem (ajawaxik) of the verb aj “want” becomes the base for the phrase rajawaxik “it is necessary”. The subject and nature of the need is expressed in a following verb. “Rajawaxik” may also be used as a noun: a necessary thing.
It is necessary that the mom talk to the dad.
It is necessary to leave the money with me.
It is necessary that our maid give us food.
What must be done?/ What’s necessary to be done?
Tell me if you have a need/if you need something.
Tajin : describes an ongoing action or an event happening at the same time as another (“progressive” English: I am/was talking). In K’iche this idea is expressed by the word katajin(ik), which is the followed by a transitive or intransitive verb in the incompletive aspect (with proper person). In colloquial speech katajin is shortened to: tajin.
Progressive action in incompletive: katajin + verb in incompletive:
The people are arriving now.
Progressive action in completive : katajin + verb in incompletive; context makes it clear that event is in the past time:
The land was being cleaned when I arrived (there).
Progressive in future time: katajin + verb; context makes it clear that event takes place in the future:
The people will be eating when we enter the house.
Here are a few more examples:
We are eating.
Your father is healing you (all).
I am being healed here.
The sick people are being healed.
Is the doctor healing you?
You (formal) are healing the baby.
|uwach ulew||the (face of the) Earth|
|k’is(o) (vtr)||to finish, to run out|
|tzaj (vit)||to dry up|
|b’in(ik) (vit)||to walk, (to go, to move)|
|k’iy(ik) (vit)||to grow (plants)|
Translate the following phrases into English:
- La kakowin alaq kab’e alaq pa le nuk’ulanem?
- We kawaj kab’ano, kakowinik kab’ano.
- Sib’alaj kakowin le ali kaxojowik.
- Rajawaxik le jab’ arech kak’iy le ab’ix.
- Rajawaxik kinb’e pa le eleb’al.
- Rajawaxik kinb’e pa ro’ch le a Wel.
- Rajawaxik kaqachajij le uwach ulew.
- Katajin kab’in le sutz’ chwach le kaj.
- Katajin katzaj taq le b’inel taq ja’ pa iximulew.
- Katajin kak’is le che’ pa we qatinamit.