In this lesson we will learn the construction for reflexive and reciprocal verbs, as well as some nominal constructions (nouns) that utilize it.
Nacho and Xwan talk to each other about meeting up to play soccer after class.
Xwan: Xok aq’ab’ a Nacho.
Nacho:Xok aq’ab a Xwan.
Xwan:La utz awach?
Nacho:Je’, utz, e k’u ri at? La utz awach?
Xwan:Utz, maltyox. Jas kab’an chwe’q?
Nacho:Chwe’q? Kimb’e pa etz’anem.
Xwan:Jachike ramaj katb’ek?
Nacho:Pa taq a las 4. La kawaj katb’e wuk?
Xwan:Je’, utz, kintijob’ej wib’ chech le etz’anem chirij potz.
Nacho:Utz, choq utz we xaq si kapatz’ b’i awib’ chirij le tijonik.
Xwan:Utz la’. Jawi’ kaqil wi qib’?
Nacho:We ne utz we pa le uxlanb’al.
Xwan:Utz la. Chajij awib’!
Nacho:Xaq junam. Chwe’q chik.
Xwan:Chwe’q chik. Jeb’a’!
Xwan: Good evening Nacho.
Nacho: Good evening, Xwan.
Xwan: How are you?
Nacho: I’m good, and you, how are you?
Xwan: Good, thanks. What are you doing tomorrow?
Nacho: Tomorrow? I’m going to play (soccer).
Xwan: What time are you going?
Nacho: At 4. Do you want to come with me??
Xwan: Yes, I do. I can practice playing soccer.
Nacho: Good, you can change after class.
Xwan: Alright. Where do we see each other? (Where sould we meet?)
Nacho: Maybe at the park.
Xwan: Ok, take care!
Nacho: You too, see you tomorrow!
Xwan: See you tomorrow. Good bye!
Nacho: Good bye!
In reflexives constructions, transitive verbs have the same person/object as both subject AND object. In K’iche’ they are formed with the help of the relational noun –ib’ meaning “self” following the verb. With some exceptions, -ib’ agrees in person and number with the verbal subject, as in English.
Reflexives constructions require a transitive verb, which may be a completive passive. In honorific address, the pronouns la/alaq are used once, after the reflexive noun (see the example below).
|y’all’s selves (informal)|
|y’all’s selves (formal)|
An example of the incompletive reflexive paradigm:
I teach myself. / I study.
You teach yourself. / You study.
She teaches herself. / She studies.
You (formal, sg) teach yourself. / You (formal, sg) study.
We teach ourselves. / We study
You teach yourselves. / You all study.
They teach themselves. / They study.
You (formal, pl) teach yourselves. / You (formal, pl) study.
In the plural reflexive constructions can have a reciprocal meaning: “with each other”
We will meet each other tomorrow.
A colloquial way to say good-bye:
We will see each other! See you! Bye!
The reflexive marker –ib’ occurs also in nouns. It does not take possessive markers if it is not possessed.
I bought a mirror for myself
What is the difference between this and this other one?
There is a meeting.
The children play hide and seek.
Halloween is a big scare.
something that you use to make a living; that which feeds us, puts food on the table
My work is what puts food on the table
|chajij||to guard; to take care of|
|chajij -ib’||to be careful; to take care of one’s self|
|ch’ab’ej||to talk with somebody|
|ch’ab’ej -ib’||to talk with each other; to be friends|
|xe’j/xib’ij -ib’||to get scared; to be afraid|
|riq -ib’||to meet up|
|esaj/elesaj||to take out; to remove|
|esaj ib’||to remove one’s self (from); to quit something|
|tijoj -ib’ (che)||to study; to teach one’s self|
|ch’ajoj -ib’||to wash one’s self|
|tzijoj||to tell about something; to talk about something|
|tzijoj -ib’||to talk to each other about something|
|b’an ub’anik -ib’||to prepare|
Translate the following phrases into English:
- Kaqatijoj qib’ che le chak.
- Kachajij ib’ alaq.
- Xinxib’ij wib’.
- La xich’ab’ej iwib’ iwir?
- Kariq ib’ alaq pa k’ayb’al.
- Kaqachajij qib’ pa b’e.
- Karesaj rib’ pa le chomal.
- Kich’ab’ej iwib’ ruk’ le nunan.Translate the following phrases into K’iche’:
- I am removing myself from the house.
- They were killing each other.
- Did you meet each other this morning?
- We are studying for the class.
- Did you (formal, pl) frighten yourselves?
- We are taking care of each other.
- Tomorrow we are talking again.
- Did you wash yourself?
- Did you prepare yourself for the meeting?
- I am seeing myself.