Print Friendly

Tïjonïk 13 Xatch’aw ruk’ le awajtij (You spoke with your teacher)
Completive Aspect

Introduction

In this lesson we will learn to speak about events in the past, which in K’iche’ are expressed used the the completive aspect, which is comparable, though not the same as the past tense.

TZIJONIKText

Mauricio le nub’i. Kimpe pa le tinamit Austin, pa le amaq’ Estados Unidos. In tijoxel pa le nimatijob’al. Iwir ximb’e pa le nimatijob’al. Aretaq xinwa’lijik, xinwa’ik. K’a te k’u ri’, ximb’e pa le nimatijob’al. Xinb’inik. Utz kinwil le nutinamit. Aretaq xinopan pa le nimatijob’al, xojb’e pa le qatijonik rech k’iche’. Tat Wel ub’i’ le qajtij. Pa le tijonik, xojch’aw ruk’ le qajtij pa k’iche’ ch’ab’al.  Sib’alaj utz kinwil le nutijonik rech K’iche’!

Show/Hide English translation

My name is Mauricio. I am from the city of Austin in the United States. I am a student at the university. Yesterday I went to the university. When I got up, I ate. Then I went to school. I walked. I like my town. When I arrived at school, we went to K’iche’ class. My teacher’s name is tat Wel. In class, we talk with our teacher.  I like my K’iche’ class a lot!

KEMCHI’Grammar

In K’iche’ the completive aspect indicates that the action is completed relative to the time spoken about. Remember that aspect gives us a text internal perspective of time, how events relate to each other: completive marks events that have been completed relative to other events. We generally translate the completive with the past in English (I went).
The completive marker is the prefix x-, which replaces the incompletive k(a)-. In the completive there is no filler vowel –a- in the third person singular, linking the aspect marker with the verb stem, like in the incompletive aspect.

1.
Katb’ek.
K-at-b’ek
INC-2sing- go
You go.
1.
Xatb’ek.
x-at-b’ek
COMP-2sing-go
You went.
2.
Kab’ek.
Ka-Ø-b’ek.
INC-3sing- go
He/she/it goes.
 2.
Xb’ek
x-Ø-b’ek
COMP-3sing-go
He/she/it went.
3.
Ximb’ek.
x-im-b’ek.
COMP-1sing-go
I went.
4.
Ximb’e ruk’ le ajkun iwir.
x-im-b’e r-uk’ le ajkun iwir
COMP-1sing ART. doctor yesterday.
I went to the doctor’s yesterday.
4.
La xtzalij la iwir?
La x-tzalij la iwir?
INT COMP-return (2sing, formal) yesterday
Did you return yesterday?
 5.
Je’, xintzalijik.
Je’, x-in-tzalij-ik.
Yes, COMP-1sing-return-pfm.
Yes, I returned.

The pronouns and phrase final markers are the same as for incompletive verbs.

Completive Aspect Person (set B) Root Phrase-final marker Full form Gloss
x- m/in b’e -k
ximb’ek
I went
x- at b’e -k
xatb’ek
You went
x- Ø  b’e -k
xb’ek
He/she/it went
x-  b’e
xb’e la
You (formal) went
x- oj  b’e -k
xojb’ek
We went
x- ix  b’e -k
xixb’ex
You all went
x- e  b’e -k
xeb’ek
They went
x-  b’e
xb’e alaq
You all (formal) went
K’AK’A TAQ TZIJVocabulary
wa’kat(ik) to stroll, to take a walk
q’ij day
amaq’ country
k’a te k’u ri’ then, after
E-uk’ with (E- = ergative)
oq'(ik) to cry
ul(ik) to arrive (here)
kolotajik* salvation
kos(ik) to be tired, to tire
muqik* burial
jiq'(ik) to suffocate
qatat, qanan; qati’t, qamam our ancestors (literally: our fathers, our mothers; our grandmothers, our grandfathers)
tukinel(ab’) destroyer(s)
sokotajik* wound
ch’ojin(ik) to fight
poroj(ik) to burn
uxlab’ breath
tz’olq’omij remorse, penance, regret
b’uk’uwem the beating of the earth
matam late
aretaq when

*These are in a grammatical form that we have not studied yet, where the root of a verb is used to make a noun. We will learn this form later.

CHAK KECH TIJOXELAB’Exercises

Translate the following sentences into English:

  1. Xinwa’kat pa le juyub’ iwir.
  2. Matam xatwalij kamik.
  3. Xki’kot le al María aretaq xulik.
  4. La xatb’e pa le tyox iwir?
  5. La xixkos pa le ichak?
  6. Xojb’e pa le amaq’ Estados Unidos.
  7. -La xixul pa le tijob’al?
    -Je’, xojulik.
  8. La war le tijoxel pa le tijonik?
  9. Xojch’awik.
  10. Xch’aw le ajtij ruk’ le al We’l.