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Tïjonïk 13 Aretaq xu’lik (When they arrived)
the Completive Aspect

Introduction

So far, we have looked at verbs in what we would call in English the present and future tenses. In this lesson, we will study the completive aspect, which is comparable, though not the same as the past tense.

TZIJONIKText

The following is a poem written by your ajtij. Listen and read through it, paying special attention to the verbs you can recognize as such.

UJILOWEM JUN AMAQ’

In kinb’isonik aretaq kana’taj ri q’ij chwe, aretaq xu’lik,
Xulkitukij we amaq’ ruk’ numik, ruk’ kamik,
Ix ixajmak xecha’, k’a te k’u ri’ ruk’ ri xekamik xeki’kotik,
Mayijab’al utayik ma ruk’ taq ri tzij xel pa kichi’, xesokonik, xekamsanik,

Ulew, loq’alaj ulew kech qatat qanan, qati’t, qamam,
Le a’lkwal la aretaq mojo’qa chu’la le tukinelab’, xeki’kotik, xetze’nik, xeb’ixanik,
E jachin ri’ ri xepe ojer tzij, xulkib’ana k’ax che la,
Wa’ xewa’ik, xewarik k’a te k’u ri’ xkib’ach ri wach la aretaq xewa’katik,

Le b’isonik chi’l le oq’ik xenab’ej chwach le kamik,
E teren le ekichaq’ cher a’re le numik, le kosik, le muqik,
Na k’o ta kolotajik la, kino’q’ik, kinjiq’ik, k’ax kuna’ wanima aretaq kinwil le sokotajik la,
Utz rowaxik, uk’exik, usachik ri ub’e’el ri ch’a’oj xb’anik.

Ta alaq kelewal, kipuqlajil nab’e taq qatat, nabe taq qanan,
Itzel taq chomanik xb’anik konojel ri a’lk’wal la xech’ojinik,
No’jimal xek’exik, xeb’inik, xechakunik, xenumik, xekamik,
Aninaq xesachansax ri e nimaq taq winaq, kuk’a’m nimaq taq chomanik ma xeporoxik.

Maj uk’exb’em pa taq we q’ij kamik loq’alaj ulew, kariqon la,
Iwir, kab’jir, ri xekamik a’re eyo’winaq ri uxlab’ la arech k’a katataj ri ub’uk’uwem ri anima la,
Tinamit, loq’alaj nutinamit, chkitzolq’omij ta b’a ri kichomanik ri ojer tzij xepetik, ma na xaq ta lal jun amaq’,

LAL WULEW

KEMCHI’Grammar

In K’iche’ the completive aspect indicates that the action is completed relative to the time spoken about. Remember that aspect gives us a text internal perspective of time, how events relate to each other: completive marks events that have been completed relative to other events. We generally translate the completive with the past in English (I went).
The completive marker is the prefix x-, which replaces the incompletive k(a)-. In the completive there is no filler vowel –a- in the third person singular, linking the aspect marker with the verb stem, like in the incompletive aspect.

1.
Katb’ek.
K-at-b’ek
INC-2sing- go
You go.
1.
Xatb’ek.
x-at-b’ek
COMP-2sing-go
You went.
2.
Kab’ek.
Ka-Ø-b’ek.
INC-3sing- go
He/she/it goes.
 2.
Xb’ek
x-Ø-ek
COMP-3sing-go
He/she/it went.
3.
Ximb’ek.
x-im-b’ek.
COMP-1sing-go
I went.
4.
Ximb’e ruk’ le ajkun iwir.
x-im-b’e r-uk’ le ajkun iwir
COMP-1sing ART. doctor yesterday.
I went to the doctor yesterday.
4.
La xtzalij la iwir?
La x-tzalij la iwir?
INT COMP-return (2sing, formal) yesterday
Did you return yesterday?
 5.
Je’, xintzalijik.
Je’, x-in-tzalij-ik.
Yes, COMP-1sing-return-pfm.
Yes, I returned.

The pronouns and phrase final markers are the same as for incompletive verbs.

Completive Aspect Person (set B) Root Phrase-final marker Full form Gloss
x- m/in b’e -k
ximb’ek
I went
x- at b’e -k
xatb’ek
You went
x- Ø  b’e -k
xb’ek
He/she/it went
x-  b’e
xb’e la
You (formal) went
x- oj  b’e -k
xojb’ek
We went
x- ix  b’e -k
xixb’ex
You all went
x- e  b’e -k
xeb’ek
They went
x-  b’e
xb’e alaq
You all (formal) went
K’AK’A TAQ TZIJVocabulary
wa’kat(ik) to stroll, to take a walk
q’ij day
amaq’ country
k’a te k’u ri then, after
E-uk’ with (E- = ergative)
oq'(ik) to cry
ul(ik) to arrive (here)
kolotajik* salvation
kos(ik) to be tired, to tire
muqik* burial
jiq'(ik) to suffocate
qatat, qanan; qati’t, qamam our ancestors (literally: our fathers, our mothers; our grandmothers, our grandfathers)
tukinel(ab’) destroyer(s)
sokotajik* wound
ch’ojin(ik) to fight
poroj(ik) to burn
uxlab’ breath
tz’olq’omij remorse, penance, regret
b’uk’uwem the beating of the earth
matam late
aretaq when

*These are in a grammatical form that we have not studied yet, where the root of a verb is used to make a noun. We will learn this form later.

CHAK KECH TIJOXELAB’Exercises

Translate the following sentences into English:

  1. Xinwa’kat pa le juyub’ iwir.
  2. Matam xatwalijik kamik.
  3. Xaki’kot le al María aretaq xulik.
  4. La xatb’ek pa le tyox iwir?
  5. La xixkos, tijoxelab’?
  6. Xojb’e pa le amaq’ Estados Unidos.
  7. -La xixul pa le tijob’al?
    -Je’, xojulik.
  8. La xawarik pa le tijonik le tijoxel?
  9. Xojchawik.
  10. Xachaw le ajtij ruk’ le al We’l.